Every time you pass by a plant have you ever wondered whether this plant will have any medicinal property? But if we study and try to know about the plants around us, especially the ones which are found easily in the locality, we learn that it has so many medicinal properties that it can cure a lot of our diseases. So Let’s know about a plant which is commonly seen, that is Parpatak.
COMMON FEATURES OF PARPATAKA PLANT
Parpataka is one among the dasha pushpa which finds a lot of significance during the last traditional month as per the Malayalam calendar that is during July and August. This period is known as karkada Maah which is the shravan month.
Parpataka, which is Fumaria parviflora, is a plant in the family Fumariaceae. In Ayurveda, it is commonly referred to as Pittapapra, but commonly it is referred to as fine leaf fumitory, fine-leaved fumitory, or Indian fumitory. They are annual plants with a height of around 15 to 60 cm. The plant is branched and has watery latex. It is a long-windedly spreading herb. It is commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and almost everywhere in India and countries like Europe.
This plant is known by different names in different parts of India, in Maharashtra it is called pitpara, in Kannada it is called Kallu Sabbasige, in Bengal it is called as pipapapra, in Tamil Nadu as Thusha and in Kashmir as Shahterah and many more names are there.
SYNONYMS OF PARPATAKA
पर्पति गच्छति शीतलत्वादिगुणान इति ।
Parpata plant reduces temperature and based on its properties, it’s appearance, habitat where it is found it has many names such as Vantikta as it is also found wild, क्षेत्रपर्पट the one which grows in fields, सूक्ष्मपत्र the one which has small leaves, प्रगन्ध as parts of this plant have a strong fragrance, पित्तारि, the one which is good in curing diseases that are caused due to predominance of pitta dosha. These are some of the synonyms of parpataka.
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PARPATAKA
It is a diffusely spreading herb that is commonly found in India. It has leaves that are glaucous and have tips that are pointed. It has segments that are linear or elliptically linear. It has small flowers that are varying in color such as rose to purple. The flowers are bisexual and isomorphic. The corolla of the plant is small and white, it has inner and upper petals. The upper petals are white and have narrow wings whereas the inner petals are purple. It has short and sessile racemes. The fruits are glucose nuts and are one-seeded. They have bracts that are long. They don’t have sepals and if present they will be very minute which will be whitish and triangular in shape. The seeds present in the fruit have a dark brown color and are bitter and astringent in taste. The stem is glabrous and is fairly puberulous.
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS PRESENT IN IT
From its name itself, we can know the phytoconstituents present in it or maybe we can say its name originates from these itself. They are Fumaramine, Fumaricine, Furamidine, Fumariflorines, Fumariline, Fumaritine, Parfumidine, Parfumine, Parviflora, Stigmasterol, Adlumidieciene, Adlumine, Adlumidine, and Sanguinarine. Presence of these components make it very useful in treating many diseased conditions. They have anti allergic and anti viral properties which make them very useful in, not getting affected by allergies and other exaggerated immune responses.
RASAPANCHAKA OF THE PLANT
Every plant has some properties that determine its actions on the body. Every plant has its rasapanchaka Constitution considered as property determining factor and that of parpataka is, it has Tikta rasa, laghu guna, Katu vipaka, and Sita Virya. It has pitta Kapha shamaka property as it has shita virya and tikta rasa, which alleviate pitta. It alleviates Kapha as it has katu vipaka and tikta rasa.
पर्पटी सन्मति पित्तास्त्र भ्रमतृष्णा कफज्वरान ।
संगग्राहि शीतलस्तिक्तो दाहनुद्वातलो लघुः ।।
It is jwara hara that is good in treating fever, Trishnahara that is it alleviates excessive thirst that is drying of the mouth, dahahara as it reduces burning sensation, alleviates rakta and pitta, reduces vomiting, and is sangrahi.
It has a lot of pharmacological actions and properties. It is antimicrobial, antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Hepatoprotective, Hypotensive, Diuretic, Choleretic, Antispasmodic, and muscle relaxant. Because of these properties, it is widely used. Parpataka is very useful and helps in keeping the body healthy as a whole. Since the extracts of this plant contain these phytoconstituents are effective in treating chronic eczema and hepatoprotective activity helps in protecting the liver from the action of certain drugs and helps in maintaining its healthy functioning.
AMAYIKA PRAYOGA – THERAPEUTIC ADMINISTRATION
Parpataka is very useful in treating pittaja jwara. For more effective use it can be mixed with Guduchi( Tinospora cordifolia) and Amalaki( Emblica officinalis) and consumed. For chardi, the cool decoction of parpata is taken with the honey. In the case of obstructive jaundice, the plant is made into a paste and is consumed along with buttermilk. It is also good for treating bilious headaches. Parpataka decoction is used in treating pimples, burns, and urticarial rashes. This even finds use in treating conditions like hemorrhoids and constipation. For this, the decoction is made along with yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Raisins (Vitis vinifera). Kashaya made using parpataka are good for detoxification and removing poisonous effects caused due to having bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium).
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS OF PARPATAKA
- Parpatadi kwatha: They are mostly used in treating pittaja jwara.
- Parpatadyarishta: They are used in treating Pandu that is anemia and Shotha.
- Parpata Amrutadi kashayam: This is also very useful in treating pittaja jwara.
- Chinnodbhavadi Kashayam – It is used in treating recurrent fevers.
- Pachanamrita Kashayam – They are used in fever as well as in digestion related issues.
- Gulma Kalanal Ras : This formulation is used in treating bloating and abdominal distension.
SOME SPECIES THAT RESEMBLE THIS PLANT
Diamond flower (Oldenlandia corymbosa), Rugania repans, Water willow (Justicia procumbens), Glossocardia sennreyfolia, Naked-Stem Carpetweed (Mollugo nudicaulis), and Oldman’s Cap (Polycarpaea Corymbosa).
Dr. Vikram Chauhan (MD-Ayurvedic Medicine) is an Expert Ayurveda Consultant in Chandigarh (India). He has vast experience of herbs and their applied uses. He has successfully treated numerous patients suffering from various ailments, throughout the world. He is CEO and Founder of Krishna Herbal Company and Planet Ayurveda in Chandigarh, India. He researched age old formulas from ancient Ayurvedic text books to restore health and save human beings from the worst side-effects of chemical-based treatments.